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2013/11/01

Hospital based Surveillance of Diarrheal Disease(OUP 2-1-A)


Diarrhea is a syndrome caused by different bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Active surveillance was conducted on two random days per week by enrolling every fifth diarrhoeal patient admitted to the Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General Hospital (IDH) in Kolkata. B. C. Roy Memorial Hospital for Children (BCRH) was also included in the surveillance to include diarrheal children less than 5 years of age. The purpose of surveillance was to create a data base on diarrheal disease, generate preliminary information for researchers, design new research protocols, develop an early warning system for forecasting epidemic and provide patient care and better preventive measure.
In both the hospitals, rotavirus was identified as the major pathogen (39-45%) followed by adenovirus (12-14%), Campylobacter jejuni (7-11%), Giardia lamblia (5-10%). Vibrio cholerae O1 (8%), Shigella spp (7%) Cryptosporidium (6%) were high among the hospitalized children with acute diarrhea in the IDH. Prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC, 15%) were comparatively high in the BCRH. In diarrheal patients of more than 5 years of age and admitted at the IDH, cholera was confirmed in 12% of the cases. The other pathogens such as DEC (10.4%), rotavirus (7%), shigellae (7.3%), V. fluvialis (6.5%), and Giardia lamblia (7.8%) were identified among IDH patients. A sudden upsurge in the prevalence of V. fluvialis and Salmonella enterica Serovar Weltevreden were due to a local foodborne diarrhoeal outbreak that occurred during July 2012.
Polymicrobial etiology was detected in 18% of the diarrheal cases from the IDH, whereas in BCRH, only 9% of the cases were infected with more than one pathogen. Surveillance study of this kind helps in the identification/prevalence of the causative pathogens and proper management of diarrheal infection.

Project ID : OUP 2-1-A
Project Title: “Surveillance of diarrhoeal diseases in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata”
Principal Investigator : Dr.T.Ramamurthy